A History of the Falkland Islands
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1775 - 1822
1775 – Britain claims South Georgia following the first landing by Captain James Cook.
" .. Here Captain Cook displayed the British Flag, and performed the ceremony of taking possession of those barren rocks, in the name of his Britannic Majesty, and his heirs forever. A volley of two or three muskets was fired into the air." 69
The South Sandwich Islands are also discovered by Captain Cook and named after the 1 st Lord of the Admiralty, the 4 th Earl of Sandwich.
13,000 seal skins from the Falklands are sold in Canton, China for $5 each, by American vessels.70
1776 – King Charles III of Spain creates the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata.
February 7 th , Ambassador Masseran in London, complains that English vessels have been seen in Port Egmont; “ … in opposition to the solemn and repeated protestations with which Spain had been assured of the total abandonment of that place.”71
1777 – Captain Cook publishes the Report of his journey, noting the huge numbers of seals around South Georgia.
April 1 st , Don Pablo Sisur is commissioned to survey the area of Port Egmont.
Spanish Governor, Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos, leaves Puerto Soledad, which is now to be governed from the mainland.72
1778 – a large number of 'maruading' sealers, American and British, are noted by the Spanish force at Soledad.
1779 – July 8 th , Spain declares war against Great Britain, citing a number of grievances and joining the French in support of the Americans, although she declines a formal alliance with the colonists.73
1780 – Spanish troops, in an act of war, destroy the buildings at Port Egmont and remove the lead plaque declaring Britain's sovereignty. This is taken to Buenos Aires.
1786 – an American sealer, United States, takes 13,000 fur seal skins, and 300 tons of elephant seal oil from the Falklands.
Lt. Thomas Edgar of the British Navy, in the whaler Hope, surveys Falkland Sound.
“Between the two main islands the sound is from 7 to 12 miles broad; and many of the smaller islands are situated in it. This channel is navigable for ships of any size, and by attending to the best chart, which is that of Lieutenant Edgar, it may be passed through with safety, as all the dangers are there laid down.”74
1787 – a British whaling ship, Amelia, commanded by Capt. James Shields, visits the Falkland Islands.
In March , the Marquis of Loreta, Don Pedro Meza, reconnoiters but finds no sign of foreign vessels.
1788 – British ships visiting the Falklands and South Georgia include the Lucas, under Captain William Aiken, the Intrepid, under Captain John Leard and the Quaker under the command of Shadrick Kearn.
Thomas Delano in the Lord Hawksworth leaves South Georgia with a full cargo of seal furs
July 16 th , Captain Leard writes to Charles Jenkinson, Lord Hawkesbury, the President of the Council for Trade and Foreign Plantations, suggesting seal conservation measures for the Falkland Islands and South Georgia.
1790 – William Raven, in the Jackall, visits South Georgia.
October 28 th , Britain and Spain sign the Nootka Sound Convention No.175 (The Treaty of San Lorenzo);
'Article 6: It is further agreed with respect to the eastern and western coasts of South America and the islands adjacent, that the respective subjects shall not form in the future any establishment on the parts of the coast situated to the south of the parts of the same coast and of the islands adjacent already occupied by Spain; it being understood that the said respective subjects shall retain the liberty of landing on the coasts and islands so situated for objects connected with their fishery and of erecting thereon huts and other temporary structures serving only those objects.' 76
Article 7: In all cases of complaint or infraction of the articles of the present convention, the officers of either party, without permitting themselves previously to commit any violence or act of force, shall be bound to make an exact report of the affair, and of its circumstances, to their respective Courts, who will terminate such differences in an amicable manner.77
The agreement also contains a 'Secret Article';
“ Since by article 6 of the present convention it has been stipulated, respecting the eastern and western coasts of South America, that the respective subjects shall not in the future form any establishment on the parts of these coasts situated to the south of the parts of the said coasts actually occupied by Spain, it is agreed and declared by the present article that this stipulation shall remain in force only so long as no establishment shall have been formed by the subjects of any other power on the coasts in question. This secret article shall have the same force as if it were inserted in the convention.”78
December 3 rd , the Convention is laid before Parliament; “ .. and became the subject of discussion in both Houses. By the friends of the ministry it was extolled and defended in general terms, as vindicating the honor of the nation, ... The opposition, on the other hand, contended ... that the rights of British subjects had been materially abridged ... They observed that, ... they were by this treaty prohibited from going nearer than thirty miles to a Spanish territory, ...”To remove all possibility,” said that gentleman (Mr. Fox), “of our ever forming a settlement to the south of her American colonies, was an object for which Spain would have been willing to pay a liberal price.” Of the truth of this assertion, there was sufficient proof in the efforts made by the Government of Spain to prevent other nations from planting colonies in the Falkland Islands; from which islands, it may be remarked, both parties to the convention appear to have been excluded by the terms of the sixth article.”79
1791 – Captain Eckstein in the whaler, Sydenham, visits the Falkland Islands. South Georgia is visited by a Capt. Cook in the London, William Clark in the Sparrow and Christopher Horner in Astrea.
1792 – Thomas Pittman, in the Ann, takes 3,000 barrels of Elephant Seal oil and 50,000 Fur Seal pelts from South Georgia.
Relations between France and Britain break down.80
1794 – January 11 th , Spain and Britain agree to a mutual abandonment of Nootka Sound.
British sealing ships, Active, Ann, Fox, Kitty, Lively, Lord Hawksbury, Mary, Minerva and Sybil, visit South Georgia during the austral summer.
In September , Don Juan Latre, patrolling East Falkland in the Spanish Brig, Galvez, sends a warning to the American Brig, Nancy; “ In consequence of the recent Treaties between the Spanish and British Governments, and of the orders I have received from the Commander and Governor of these Islands of Malvinas, it is my duty to inform you that you have no right either to fish or to anchor in the neighborhood of Spanish settlements; as solely the English Royalists are allowed to fish at 10 leagues from the said Establishments … “
1796 – sealers Sally and Young William visit South Georgia. The Sally is wrecked, but the full complement is rescued by Capt. Mackay in the Young William.
October 5 th , Spain forms an alliance with France and declares war against Britain.81
“The Nootka Sound convention grew out of certain rights on the part of Great Britain, which existed long prior to the formation of that convention. Gentlemen had talked about certain concessions on the part of Spain, certain benefits which had been conceded to England in the Nootka Sound convention; but it would be remembered that that convention was ended by the war of 1796.”82
Nicholas Vansittart, MP for Hastings, proposes a plan for an attack by British forces on Buenos Aires.
1797 – British forces blockade Spain to cut her off from the American dominions.
1798 / 99 – sealers Prince Edward and Sybil visit South Georgia. The American ship, Regulator, is wrecked at South Georgia and its cargo of 14,000 Fur Seal pelts is sold to the British ship that rescues the crew.
1800 – a British ship, Morse, visits South Georgia, as does the Duke of Kent and the Eliza.
Major-General Thomas Maitland proposes an attack on Spanish colonies in South America beginning with Buenos Aires. The objective is to secure new markets for British goods, which Spain has banned.
1801 – Responsibility for the Colonies is transferred to the War and Colonial Office.
The Earl Spencer is wrecked off South Georgia.
1804 – a discussion takes place between William Pitt, Lord Henry Melville and Sir Homes Rigg Popham on the merits of the Maitland plan to attack South America. Popham believes a better plan would be the taking and holding of strategic positions.
1805 – Spanish maps start to refer to the islands as the ‘Malvinas’.
October 21 st , the Battle of Trafalgar severely reduces the capacity of Spain to communicate with its South American colonies.
1806 – January, Sir Homes Rigg Popham leads 6000 soldiers in the capture of the Dutch colony at the Cape, in South Africa, which is taken without much of a fight.
April , Popham, with the 71 st Regiment of Foot, heads towards South America, via St. Helena, intent on taking Buenos Aires. He has no orders to do so.
June 27 th , Popham and General William Carr Beresford, leading some 1,600 troops and marines, attacks and occupies Buenos Aires.83
Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte, flees to Córdoba , losing his treasury to British troops on the way.
July 2 nd , the city authorities capitulate and the British marines re-embark, leaving 1,200 troops to hold the city.
The wealthy and political classes welcome the British arrival, but the merchants and poorer groups do not. The fledgling Republican movement is disturbed when Beresford declines to assist them in their cause.
August 10 th , Spanish irregular forces, led by a Frenchman, Santiago de Liniers, attack and retake Buenos Aires. The 71 st Regiment of Foot lose both their Regimental Colours.84
August 12 th , Gen. Bereford agrees to surrender, but not unconditionally. Liniers agrees and the British force lays down its arms on the condition that they may return to England.
August 25 th , Liniers notifies Beresford that the Cabildo has rejected the terms of the capitulation and will not allow the British troops to leave the United Provinces. Beresford protests.
September 20 th , the British force is dispersed amongst the Provinces. Beresford and his officers are detained as prisoners of war.85
October , Popham captures the port of Maldonado and awaits reinforcements.
1807 – January 5 th, Rear-Admiral Stirling arrives at Maldonado to relieve Popham.
Stirling besieges Montevideo.
February 3 rd , Montevideo is captured in an operation involving some 10,000 British soldiers and marines under the command of General Samuel Auchmuty.
General Beresford effects his escape and returns to England.
March 6 th , Sir Homes Rigg Popham court-martial commences on the Gladiator at Portsmouth. He is charged with leaving his post at the Cape.86
" The court has agreed that the charges have been proved against the said Captain Sir Home Popham. That the withdrawing, without orders so to do, the whole of any naval force from the place where it is directed to be employed, and the employing it in distant operations against the enemy, more especially if the success of such operations should be likely to prevent its speedy return, may be attended with the most serious inconvenience to the public service, as the success of any plan formed by his majesty's ministers for operations against the enemy, in which such naval force might be included, may by such removal be entirely prevented.
And the court has further agreed, that the conduct of the said Captain Sir Home Popham, in the withdrawing the whole of the naval force under his command from the Cape of Good Hope, and the proceeding with it to Rio de la Plata, is highly censurable ; but, in consideration of circumstances, doth adjudge him to be only severely reprimanded, and he is hereby severely reprimanded accordingly.”
May 10 th , Lieutenant-General John Whitelocke arrives in Montevideo to take charge of operations and with orders to; “ .. reduce the Province of Buenos Ayres.”
June 28 th , Whitelock lands at Ensenada with 7,800 men and 18 field-pieces.
July 1 st , Lt. General Whitelocke defeats Liniers, forcing his retreat, but does not attempt to enter the city. He demands instead that the city authorities surrender, and become 'prisoners of war'.87
July 3 rd , Whitelock again demands that Buenos Aires surrenders. The reply is short, ”If you want your arms you must come and take them.”
July 5 th , Brigadier-General Robert 'Black Bob' Craufurd, with a light brigade that includes a battalion of the 95 th rifle regiment, enters the city. He is met by a mixed-race militia, bolstered by regular troops and assisted by the local inhabitants positioned on the rooftops. Unused to urban combat, the British suffer heavy losses.88
Santiago de Liniers attacks again.
July 6 th , Lt. General Whitelocke surrenders to de Liniers under terms that require the abandonment of Montevideo, even though that city is well garrisoned and not under threat.
“In that very town, the capture of which would have raised me to the heights of military glory if I had been left to myself, I, two days afterwards, found myself in the humiliating situation of a prisoner.”89
September , Whitleock withdraws from the Rio de la Plata, evacuating Montevideo.
1808 – British ships, Otter and Swan, visit South Georgia.
January 28 th , Lt. General Whitelocke's court-martial commences in Chelsea College;90
“This is not the Case of an Officer on his Trial by Court Martial for any one particular fact alledged against him, but it is the first Trial by Court Martial, instituted to investigate into the Conduct of a General Officer, having the command of an Expedition against a foreign Province.”
Whitelock is charged with general incompetence but a charge of 'cowardice' is rejected by the Judge-Advocate. More seriously, Whitelocke is charged with ceding Montevideo; “ .. tending to the dishonour of his Majesty's arms, and being contrary to his duty as an officer, prejudicial to good order and military disciple, and contrary to the articles of war.”
In February , Napoleon Bonaparte turns on his Spanish allies and occupies Spain.
March 14 th , after 30 days of prosecution evidence, Lt. General Whitelocke commences the presentation of his defence.
March 19 th , Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favour of his son.
On being found guilty on all charges but one, Lt. General Whitelock is dismissed.
April , Napoleon takes Charles IV as prisoner to Bayonne, and summons Ferdinand.
May 5 th , Charles IV retracts his earlier abdication, and abdicates again, this time in favour of Napoleon.
May 6 th , Ferdinand VII agrees to recognise the abdication of his father, and is then forced to renounce his own claim to the Spanish throne. Popular uprisings break out around the country.
June 6 th , Napoleon proclaims his brother, Joseph, as José I, King of Spain and the Indies.
August , British troops land in Portugal.
September 25 th , Spanish partisans fighting Napoleon form a temporary government, the Supreme Junta, to serve as a surrogate for the absent King.
1809 – January 14 th , the Supreme Junta signs a treaty of alliance with Britain.
May 22 nd , the Supreme Junta invites representatives from its overseas territories to sit in a Cortes. Invitees include Peru, Buenos Aires and Chile.
1810 – January 29 th , following military reverses the Supreme Junta dissolves itself and a five person Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies is tasked with pursuing the idea of a Cortes.
May 22 nd - 25 th , a meeting is held in Buenos Aires to decide the future of the Viceroyalty.
Delegates eventually declare for Ferdinand VII, but refuse to recognise the authority of the Council of Regency.91
Buenos Aires Province forms its own, 'Primera Junta', with the Viceroy, Baltasar de Cisneros, forced to resign before being exiled. 92
In a reflection of the confusion in Spain, not all the Provinces agree on who to support, and conflict erupts.
Montevideo , staunchly royalist, endorses the Council of Regency, with the result that its Governor, Francisco Javier de Elio, declares himself, Viceroy of the Rio de la Plata, and the capital of the Viceroyalty moves across the river.
September 24 th , the new Cortes meets in Cádiz.93
1811 – January 19 th , Francisco Javier de Elio is confirmed as Viceroy by the Junta of Cadiz, with Buenos Aires declared a rebel city.
February , the rural population of the Banda Oriental94 rebel and besiege Montevideo, threatening Viceroy de Elio's position. All loyal troops are ordered back to Montevideo, including those stationed on East Falkland.
February 13 th , Paul Guillén Martinez, evacuates the garrison from Puerto Soledad, leaving a plate in the bell tower containing the inscription95 -
" This island with its ports, buildings, units and contents belongs to the sovereignty of Sr. D. Fernando VII King of Spain and the Indies, Soledad of Malvinas 7 February 1811 - Governor Paul Guillén."
November 18 th , following defeat at the hand of the rural forces, de Elio returns to Spain, ending the Viceroyalty de la Rio Plata and its administration of Spanish territory around the river, and on East Falkland.
1812 – Capt. Charles Barnard of the sealer, Nania, and 4 of his crew, are marooned on New Island.
In January , Francisco Javier de Elio resigns his position as Viceroy de la Rio Plata.
British forces under Arthur Wellesley, advance into Spain.
February 27 th , Manuel Belgrano unfurls the first triband flag of light blue and white. The First Triumvirate refuse to accept the new flag, as they rule on behalf of Ferdinand and a flag would be an act of independence.
March 19 th , the Cortes in Cádiz promulgates a written Constitution. Article 1: "The Spanish nation is the collectivity of the Spaniards of both hemispheres."96
1813 – October , Napoleon's forces retreat from the Iberian Peninsular.
1814 – British vessels, Admiral Colpoys, Diana and Recovery visit the Falkland Islands.
The Provinces of the old Viceroyalty descend into a series of civil and internecine wars that will last until 1876.
March , Ferdinand VII, King of Spain, re-enters his country and takes up his throne. Napoleon abdicates.
May 4 th , Ferdinand VII refuses to accept the liberal Constitution of 1812, attempting to reimpose absolute monarchy over Spain, and its dominions in the Americas.
June , Buenos Airean forces under General Carlos Alvear, capture Montevideo.
July 5 th , a Treaty of Friendship and Alliance is signed between Britain and Spain, reinstating all Treaties of commerce existent before 1796 but only until new negotiations take place.97
In November , Captain Barnard and his crew are rescued by the British whalers, Asp and Indispensable.
1815 – the Norfolk, visits South Georgia.
1816 – March 24 th , a Congress meets in Tucumán, with representatives from the Provinces. The Federal League, however, are not represented.98
J uly 9 th , the United Provinces of South America99 formally declares independence from Spain at the Congress of Tucumán. Delegates point to the refusal of Ferdinand VII to accept the Constitution of 1812, and states that any union between Spain and its Dominions was broken on Ferdinand's abdication.100
July 20 th , Belgrano's triband flag is accepted as the flag of the new nation.
1817 / 18 – Captain Edes in the sealing ship, Pickering, visits the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The Tucumán Congress breaks up, following disagreements between the Unitarians, and the Federales.
1818 / 19 – British whalers and sealers, Arab, Anne, Echo, Grand Sachem, Indispensable, King George, Dove, Norfolk, Recovery and Mary Ann, hunt off South Georgia.
1819 – February 19 th , Captain William Smith in the merchant brig, Williams, sights Livingston Island, the most northerly of the South Shetland Islands.
In October , Smith returns, lands on King George Island and claims the South Shetland Islands for Britain.
Towards the end of the year, a Patrick Lynch in Buenos Aires, purchases the French frigate Braque and refits her as a privateer. She is renamed Heroina.
1820 – Captain Smith and the Williams, with a Charter from the Royal Navy, return to the South Atlantic to survey the South Shetlands, accompanied by Lieutenant Edward Bransfield.
January 5 th , David Jewett is commissioned Colonel in the service of the National Marines, by Matias Irigogyen, Minister of War.101
January 30 th , Smith and Bransfield discover the Antarctic Peninsula.
Patrick Lynch obtains a 'corsair' license from the Supreme Director, Jose Rondeau, permitting his privateer to pursue and capture Spanish ships.
March 21 st , Colonel David Jewett, takes command of the Heroina, and sails after Spanish prey.
“There is scarcely a Buenos Ayrean privateer which has not committed piracy of every description - it appears that at Buenos Ayres itself commissions of Artigas have been sold to the Captains of the Buenos Ayres privateers, who have gone to sea, and used one or the other commission as suited their purposes... There is not a day passes but we hear of new crimes of this description committed under the flag and commission of Buenos Ayres ..."
July 27 th , the Heroina attacks a Portuguese ship, the Carlota, which is en-route to Lisbon, in an act of piracy.
October 27 th , Jewett and the Heroina arrive in the Falkland Islands after losing the Carlota, and the 50 men on it, in a storm. His ship, and remaining crew, are in a poor condition, suffering from scurvy.
November 2 nd , Colonel Jewett announces that he has a commission 102 from the United Provinces to take possession of the Islands.
He sends letters to some of the commanders of the ships scattered around the islands:
“National Frigate Heroina at Port Soledad
Sir, I have the honour to inform you of the circumstance of my arrival at this port, commissioned by the supreme government of the United Provinces of South America to take possession of these islands in the name of the country to which they naturally appertain. In the performance of this duty it is my desire to act towards all friendly flags with the most distinguished justice and politeness. A principal object is to prevent the wanton destruction of the sources of supply to those whose necessities compel or invite them to visit the islands, and to aid and assist such as require it to obtain a supply with the least trouble and expense. As your views do not enter into contravention or competition with these orders, and as I think mutual advantage may result from a personal interview, I invite you to pay me a visit on board my ship, where I shall be happy to accommodate you during your pleasure. I would beg you, so far as comes within your sphere, to communicate this information to other British subjects in this vicinity. I have the honour to be respectfully yours..."103
British explorer and seal hunter, James Weddell, on the brig Jane, receives a copy of the letter.
Weddell walks the 7 or 8 miles from his mooring in Port St. Salvador to Puerto Soledad, where the Heroina lies.
“Captain Jewitt received me with great politeness, and not withstanding the mutilated and worn out state of his crew, he assumed an air of power and authority beyond my expectation. He told me his business was to take possession of the Falkland Islands for his government, and that everything necessary for an establishment would be procured from Buenos Ayres so soon as he could purchase a cutter, of which there were several among the islands. It evidently appeared, however, that his principal business was to refresh his crew; for never, since the time of Lord Anson, perhaps, had an instance occurred where the scurvy had been so destructive to a ships company. … The complement of men, when the ship sailed from Buenos Ayres eight months before, was 200: they had not now more than 30 seamen and 40 soldiers fit to do duty … “
November 6 th , Capt. Jewett holds a ceremony; “In a few days, he took formal possession of these islands for the patriot government of Buenos Ayres, read a declaration under their colours, planted on a port in ruins, and fired a salute of 21 guns. .. he had laid claim to the wreck of the French ship .. to the entire exclusion of several vessels which had arrived, bound to New Shetland, (and) he was aware that an authoritative appearance was necessary.”104
November 9 th , Capt. William B. Orne of the GeneralKnox also receives a copy of Jewett's proclamation.
Jewett makes no attempt to impose any conditions on the ships present in the Islands. Nor is any attempt made to regulate the sealing activities that most the ships there are indulging in.105
November 20 th , James Weddell sails, leaving Jewett repairing his ship.
6 British ships, the 'Eliza', 'George', 'Hetty', 'Indian', 'Jane' and 'Sprightly' are moored around the Islands, together with 9 US ships.106
1821 – February , Colonel Jewett prepares a 13 page report about his journey for the authorities in Buenos Aires, but makes no mention of his claim of the previous November. He also asks for a relief as he too has become sick with scurvy.
Jewett seizes a US ship, the Rampart, on the excuse that it has a cargo bound for Spain, in a further act of piracy.
In March , Capt. Guillermo Mason takes over as commander of the Heroina. Jewett returns to the mainland.
April , Capt. Mason and the Heroina sail away from the Falkland Islands leaving nothing behind.107
An Official Gazette is instituted in the Province of Buenos Aires to acquaint the public with the acts of Government.
June 6 th, the General Knox arrives back in Salem, Massachusetts, with 5000 seal skins, 600 barrels of oil and a copy of Jewett's circular.
June 8 th , the Salem Gazette reproduces the letter; “ National Frigate Heroina, Port Soledad, 9th Nov. 1820: "Sir, I have the honour to inform you of my arrival at this Port, to take possession of these islands, in the name of the Supreme Government of the United Provinces of South America. This ceremony was publicly performed on the 6th day of this present November, and the National Standard hoisted at the Fort, under a salute from this Frigate, in the presence of several citizens of The United States and Subjects of Great Britain, I am, etc..."
August , Jewett's announcement appears in a London newspaper, and is then picked up by the press in Gibraltar and Spain.
November 10 th , the news report reaches the United Provinces, and is reproduced in the Buenos Aires Argos.108
December , the South Orkney Islands are discovered and claimed for Britain by Captain George Powell.
1822 – March 20 th , the Heroina is challenged by the Portuguese frigate Pérola off Gibraltar which forces Mason to surrender.
'Case of the Heroina: The Commander, it appeared in evidence, was a North American of the name of William Robert Mason, and his commission was dated in April, 1820, authorising him only to molest Spanish vessels, enjoining, and imposing on him the obligation to avoid every abuse of his trust, and all irregularities on the high seas which might implicate the Buenos Ayres flag.
In his cruize he was directed to overhaul every vessel, both armed and traders navigating under the Spanish flag, and examine their commissions and papers to see if they were legal, and the use made of them, and also to punish all excesses committed against neutral and friendly vessels.
The Heroina was fitted out and commissioned as a vessel belonging to the Government of Buenos Ayres. On examination, however, 45 men, composing the crew, spontaneously confessed, that this corvette pursued a system of piracy, robbing all the vessels they could. From the depositions, it appeared, that early in August, 1820, in the latitude of La Isla de Flores, they met a Portuguese vessel, called the Carlotta, bound with a cargo from Bahia to Lisbon, which they captured, after an action of two hours. The crew were put in irons five days, and then sent on board a vessel accidentally met with. The captain of the privateer afterwards had two officers and four sailors shot; and his prize, the Carlotta, was lost in a storm.
Towards the close of 1820, being at the Falkland Islands, an American schooner entered, which they captured, and sent to their consignee at Buenos Ayres. On the 14th June, they captured the Spanish brig of war, Maypu, bound from Lima to Cadiz and armed her to accompany them on their piratical expedition.
In the latitude of Cabofrio, they chased the Portuguese brig, Infante Don Sebastian, firing at her, but being unable to come up with her, they chased a Portuguese galley to leeward, and the captain having come on board the Heroina, near Cape St. Vincents, accompanied by a slave, the pirates had the latter hung up to compel him to declare where his master kept his money. on the 12th July, 1821, they captured the Portuguese ship Viscondessa de Rio Sceo, near Bahia, which they took to the island of St. Vincents, conveying on board the privateer the greatest part of the moveable effects, and after selling the hull, they shipped the cargo in the American brig Aligator, and conveyed it to the island of Boa Vista, where it was transshipped on board the brig Hunter of London, for the purpose of going to Buenos Ayres. Numerous other similar cases are detailed in the proceedings. The privateer and her consort generally made their attacks under the British flag." 109
Mason is found guilty and imprisoned in Portugal for two years before being released.110
September 17 th , James Weddell departs England in the brig, Jane, bound once again for the south seas. The Jane is accompanied by the cutter, Beaufoy, captained by a Matthew Brisbane.111
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